A small molecule made of two carbon, three hydrogen, and one oxygen atoms. Acetyl groups are added to or removed from other molecules and may affect how the molecules act in the body.
What are acetyl functional groups?
In organic chemistry, acetyl (ethanoyl), is a functional group, the acyl of acetic acid, with chemical formula -COCH3. It is sometimes abbreviated as Ac (not to be confused with the element actinium). The acetyl radical contains a methyl group single-bonded to a carbonyl.
How can you form Acetyl-CoA?
Acetyl-CoA is generated either by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate from glycolysis, which occurs in mitochondrial matrix, by oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, or by oxidative degradation of certain amino acids. Acetyl-CoA then enters in the TCA cycle where it is oxidized for energy production.
What are sources of Acetyl-CoA?
Acetyl-CoA is a metabolite derived from glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid catabolism. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvate.
What is the best source of Acetyl-CoA?
Although glucose is an efficient carbon source for acetyl-CoA production, the pathway from acetate to acetyl-CoA is the shortest and fatty acids can produce acetyl-CoA through fatty acid oxidation along with abundant NADH and FADH2.
How acetyl CoA can be used in the body?
Acetyl CoA is used to create lipids, triglycerides, steroid hormones, cholesterol, and bile salts. Lipolysis is the breakdown of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids, making them easier for the body to process.