There are two clusters of necessary causes: (A) motivations (e.g. a preference for particular findings) and (B) means (e.g. a flexible study design). These two combined represent a sufficient cause for reporting bias to occur.
What is the most common cause of bias?
The common causes of bias can typically be traced back to these five things: Our personal experiences and upbringing. The experiences of others, like our parents and friends. The cultures we live in and what is considered normal.
What occurs during bias?
In research, bias occurs when “systematic error [is] introduced into sampling or testing by selecting or encouraging one outcome or answer over others” 7. Bias can occur at any phase of research, including study design or data collection, as well as in the process of data analysis and publication (Figure 1).
What is reporting bias in statistics?
A systematic distortion that arises from the selective disclosure or withholding of information by parties involved in the design, conduct, analysis, or dissemination of a study or research findings.
What do you mean by selective reporting?
Selective reporting bias is when results from scientific research are deliberately not fully or accurately reported, in order to suppress negative or undesirable findings. The end result is that the findings are not reproducible, because they have been skewed by bias during the analysis or writing stages.