The cross-section of a forest soil with different peat layers comprises the following: (a) slightly decayed Sphagnum moss, (b) transitional peat, (c) highly decayed Sphagnum moss, (d) peat layer from an Alder-swamp forest, (e) sedge peat, (f) reed peat, (g) organic silt, and (h) mineral subsoil.
What is forest soil made of?
These forests have soils called Spodosols. They get a lot of rain, and when combined with a sand, the water leaches minerals and organic matter downward. This leaves an ashy white layers (E horizons). Deciduous forests have soils called Alfisols.
What are the main features of forest soil?
(i) These soils are heterogeneous in nature, with different characteristics depending on the mountainous environment and altitude. (ii) The soils are high in humus but low in potash, phosphorus, and lime. (iii) The soils are particularly suited to the cultivation of tea and coffee, spices and fruits.
What are the minerals found in forest soil?
Six groups of these minerals are important in soils: hydrous mica, kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, chlorite, and allophane. Parent materials are made up of consolidated or unconsolidated mineral material that has undergone some degree of physical or chemical weathering.
How does forest enrich the soil?
Forests and trees make an essential contribution to food security by helping to maintain the environmental conditions needed for agricultural production. They stabilize the soil, prevent erosion, enhance the lands capacity to store water, and moderate air and soil temperatures.
Why is soil black?
The topsoil is usually darker than lower layers (or horizons) because this is where organic matter accumulates. Soil colour is usually due to 3 main pigments: black—from organic matter. red—from iron and aluminium oxides.
What is the pH of forest soil?
Up to pH 7.0 is acidic; between 7 and 14 is alkaline....pH Comparisons.SubstancepHSoil TypeUrine6Deciduous forest soilsBlood and pure water7 (Neutral)Agricultural soils, fenland peatsSeawater8Calcareous chalk and limestone soils, saline soilsEgg white910 more rows
Which soil is GREY in Colour?
Soil colourSoil colourSoil types and characteristicsGleyed/grey/greenThese soils are associated with very poor drainage or waterlogging. The lack of air in these soils provides conditions for iron and manganese to form compounds that give these soils their colour.6 more rows•24 Sep 2013
Which layer of soil is black?
topsoil A HORIZON- This is the layer that we call topsoil and it is located just below the O Horizon. This layer is made up of minerals and decomposed organic matter and it is also very dark in color. This is the layer that many plants roots grow in.